城市燃气管网SCADA系统

 城市燃气管网SCADA系统是基于计算机控制技术、通信技术及多媒体软件技术为核心,针对燃气企业专门设计的计算机监控系统,SCADA系统不仅对燃气企业生产安全是有力的保障,同时也为管网输配优化调度、故障分析、辅助决策提供了科学的手段。
     城市燃气输配管网SCADA系统的测控对象一般包括:城市门站、储气站、阀室、高/中压测量和调节配气站、中压测量/调节站、中压/低压调节配气站及管网测压点,阴极保护站等。

 

    1、数据的采集和处理
   
门站或储气站及高中压调压站所采用的数据采集系统一般为RTU或PLC,主要测量参数包括:过滤器的差压(AI)、进站压力(AI)、进站温度(AI)、出站温度(AI)、出站压力(AI)、流量计算、调压阀的调节阀位(AI)和差压(AI)、阴极保护电位和电流(AI),阀门的状态(DI)和参数的超限(DI)或过载报警(DI)以及可能的智能仪表如(气体组分分析仪、热量和比重的测量、H2S和污水的测量)、还有一些环境设备的状态和参数如:燃气浓度(AI)、耗电、空调、供电设备的状态(DI)。
    对于储气站,可能还配有压缩机,因此对压缩机工况的检测也是必须的。它包括正常停机、开机准备、正常运行、故障停机等DI信号。
    2、数据存储及恢复
   
数据的存储和恢复指的是SCADA系统在通讯中断的情况下,RTU的数据存储及在通讯恢复后的历史数据的恢复,是管理者在生产管理中最为关心的问题之一,它关系到整个系统的数据完整性。尤其在系统模拟和决策支持系统越来越可能得到广泛应用的情况下,数据的存储和恢复也就显得越来越重要了。
    在城市燃气行业中,并不是所有的数据都需要保存,需要保存的是流量,进出口压力、管网压力等重要数据。
    3、网络和通信方式
   
技术为SCADA通讯的一部分。基于TCP/IP的计算机网络互连与扩展技术,如网关、路由器、网桥、中继器、远程访问服务;基于存储器的动态数据交换技术;基于开放数据库的访问技术等构成控制网络与信息。事实上这部分应用最多的是SCADA系统以上管理层部分,但随着国家宽带数据网的建设和增值业务范围的扩大,利用它来实现SCADA系统的通讯,是未来SCADA系统发展的趋势之一。
    1)、无线线通信方式:GPRS、3G、扩频通信、短波通信、微波通信、卫星通信等通信方式;
    2)、有线通信方式:公共数据网(PSTN)、光纤专用网络等
    4、中央监控中心监控功能
    1)采用成熟通用的监控软件作为SCADA监控系统平台软件;
    2)对于城市燃气输配SCADA系统来说,它的基本要求如下:
      ·对站内工艺设备、工艺参数进行采集、存贮、报警和集中显示
      ·显示现场设备的运行状态、动态趋势、历史趋势和工艺模拟流程
      ·显示和打印天然气的瞬时和累积流量、打印报表
      ·生成生产报表、管理报表
      ·报警和事件信息的显示和打印
      ·对需要进行安全保护操作的工艺设备进行联锁控制
      ·RTU的数据修改
      ·接受SCADA系统GPS的时间同步,30天误差小于1秒。时间同步不影响数据的准确性,特别是天然气流量和水量
      ·通过站控计算机,可以遥控远端的电动球阀的开和关,而且还可以修改相关控制回路中的设点
      ·系统应具有RTU历史数据手动(即在本地从RTU中读出,以一定的数据格式方便地、快捷地、自动地存放在磁盘中)地恢复在报表系统数据库中
      ·SCADA系统软件的容错处理功能,如双主机冗余
      ·发送调度指令
      ·与其它数据库系统的连接。
     5、管网模拟及调度
   
ADA系统与管网地理信息系统GIS相结合,为城市燃气企业规划设计和管网维护部门服务,GIS系统记录了供气系统中所有的供气设施信息,用图形数据和属性数据存储,为决策支持系统提供供气系统静态基础资料。
     1)管线模拟和仿真一般分为在线模拟和离线模拟。管网系统在线模拟的模型应该是真正的动态模型,它用来自SCADA系统的实时数据来模拟管线实际的行为。可实时计算管网的储气量、泄露点的分析、及流量、压力等重要管网运行参数的预测。离线模拟,通过参数的设置,来预测管网的负荷及可能的参数值,为管网的科学设计和和合理调度提供参考。
     2)调度决策软件是城市供气系统自动化控制和优化调度系统的重要组成部分,它形成原始的操作指令,是以城市供气系统优化运行(费用最小化,安全性最高)为目标;调度决策形成过程有两种方法:宏观模型优化调度和微观模型优化调度,前一种方法要求的基础资料较少,受宏观模型的局限性限制;后一种方法考虑了管网微观结构,随着城市供气调度基础水平的不断提高,微观模型优化调度是发展方向。

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